For I know that my Redeemer lives, and at last he will stand upon the earth; and after my skin has been thus destroyed, then from my flesh I shall see God, whom I shall see on my side, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. My heart faints within me! Job 19:25-27 RSV
Even if you haven’t read the Book of Job yourself, perhaps you remember the story: The wealthy and influential Job is a just man in God’s eyes (1:8), but God, at Satan’s prompting, allows him to be tested. Job loses all of his property, livestock, friends, and with the exception of his wife, his entire family. He then is afflicted with dreadful sores all over his body and sinks into depression. Three friends come to console him, but end up harassing him instead. Job responds to their harangues and to that of stranger too. After lamenting bitterly, God visits him face to face. Job is silenced, and his wealth and health are eventually restored two-fold. (42:10)
The Book of Job addresses two burning questions:
- Is suffering only a retribution for wickedness? Why do the just often suffer, while the wicked often thrive?
- How should a just man respond to suffering?
Suffering as Retribution?
Is suffering only a retribution for wickedness? Job’s “friends” certainly think so (4:7-9). They consistently impugn his character (22:5) and tell him to repent (22:23). God, though, has the last say: “After the LORD had spoken these words to Job, the LORD said to Eli’phaz the Te’manite: “My wrath is kindled against you and against your two friends; for you have not spoken of me what is right, as my servant Job has.” (42:7)
The old idea that suffering is God’s retribution for sin is, at its best, inadequate.
The Response of a Just Man
While the inspired author does not provide us with a definitive purpose for suffering (we find that in the person of Jesus Christ), he does give us some guidance on how to respond to suffering, and I found four elements of such a response by a “just man” in the Book of Job.
First, the just man takes personal initiative to relieve the suffering of others, especially the oppressed.
“I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy…I was eyes to the blind, and feet to the lame. I was a father to the poor, and I searched out the cause of him whom I did not know. I broke the fangs of the unrighteous, and made him drop his prey from his teeth.” (29:13-17)
Let’s stop and ponder that last picture for a moment. In a personal act of courageous mercy, we are to get close enough to the wild beast to smash its teeth with a rock or stick, forcing it to drop its helpless prey. In word, our response to the suffering of the oppressed should be one of bold mercy.
Job also maintains his trust in God:
“Even now, behold, my witness is in heaven, and he that vouches for me is on high.” (16:19) and “For I know that my Redeemer lives, and at last he will stand upon the earth; and after my skin has been thus destroyed, then from my flesh I shall see God, whom I shall see on my side, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. My heart faints within me!” (19:25-27)
When it comes to his own suffering, Job does not fail to praise God, even in his bitterest laments: “Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked shall I return; the LORD gave, and the LORD has taken away; blessed be the name of the LORD.” (1:21) and “With God are wisdom and might; he has counsel and understanding.” (12:13) Praising God in the most desperate of situations is quite difficult, and challenging even if one’s trust in God is great.
Lastly (and eventually), Job responds to his suffering with humility:
Then Job answered the LORD: ‘Behold, I am of small account; what shall I answer thee? I lay my hand on my mouth. I have spoken once, and I will not answer; twice, but I will proceed no further.’ (40:3-5)
A face-to-face encounter with God finally silences Job.
A challenge laid down by the Book of Job, perhaps, is to drop our old conceptions of suffering as always and everywhere a punishment, and concentrate instead on encountering God in it by responding to it as a just man would. With courageous mercy when we see the suffering of others, and with trust, praise, and humility when we experience it ourselves.